Swati G. Talele, Eknath D. Ahire, Khemchand R. Surana, Vijayraj N. Sonawane, Gokul S. Talele
Swati G. Talele1*, Eknath D. Ahire2, Khemchand R. Surana3, Vijayraj N. Sonawane3, Gokul S. Talele4
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sandip Institute of Pharmacy, Nashik.
2Department of Pharmaceutics, MET’s Institute of Pharmacy, Adgaon Nashik.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shreeshakti Shaikshanik Sanstha,
Divine College of Pharmacy, Satana, Nashik.
4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Matoshri College of Pharmacy, Eklahare, Nashik
Volume - 12,
Issue - 1,
Year - 2022
Background: Corona virusis identified since 2002 and from seven strain severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus and middle east respiratory syndrome corona virus causes severity in patients and then in December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona virus 2 infection ensued in Wuhan, China and spread crosswise China and beyond. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel Corona virusas Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Main Text: This form of virus comes up its growth when expose to any of the naturally expose material and the precaution for this is only single oriented, that is keeping yourself hygienic by washing your hands by utilizing high grade sanitizer. The literature survey revealed that Corona virus strain mainly severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus and middle east respiratory syndrome Corona virus and human corona virus preserve on various surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for about 9 days but inactivation of virus by utilizing various virucide. On infection, the virus has a surge of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which do damage to lung tissue, deterioration of lung function, and then eventually go to lung failure. Drug discovery against the virus is a challenging line of work owing to frequent recombination events. The evolution of a vaccine is another significant facet. Research is in ongoing stage to develop vaccine and medicines for COVID 19. In such circumstances, other system of medicineis widely used, like Allopathy, Ayurveda and Unani. Unani system of medicine utilized some measures for health protection during epidemics. In Unani medicine, during an epidemic, apart from isolation and quarantine, three measures are of utmost importance, impurification of surroundings using certain herbal drugs as fumigants or sprays, health promotion and immune-modulation, and use of health-protecting drugs and symptom-specific drugs. Conclusion: We require more structural biological details which put up rush up the drug or vaccine development process against corona virus. Thus, objective of this follow-up article is to focus on past to present perspective on corona virus pandemic.
Cite this article:
Swati G. Talele, Eknath D. Ahire, Khemchand R. Surana, Vijayraj N. Sonawane, Gokul S. Talele. Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A past and Present Prospective. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2022; 12(1):45-3. doi: 10.52711/2231-5691.2022.00008
Swati G. Talele, Eknath D. Ahire, Khemchand R. Surana, Vijayraj N. Sonawane, Gokul S. Talele. Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A past and Present Prospective. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2022; 12(1):45-3. doi: 10.52711/2231-5691.2022.00008 Available on: https://www.asianjpr.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-12-1-8
1. Promkuntod N, Van Eijndhoven R, De Vrieze G, Gröne A, Verheije M. Mapping of the receptor-binding domain and amino acids critical for attachment in the spike protein of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Virology. 2014; 448: 26-32.
2. Gallagher TM, Buchmeier MJ. Coronavirus spike proteins in viral entry and pathogenesis. Virology. 2001; 279(2): 371-374.
3. Abro SH, Renström LH, Ullman K, et al. Emergence of novel strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Sweden. Veterinary microbiology. 2012; 155(2-4): 237-246.
4. Spaan W, Delius H, Skinner M, et al. Coronavirus mRNA synthesis involves fusion of non‐contiguous sequences. The EMBO journal. 1983; 2(10): 1839-1844.
5. Ziebuhr J, Snijder EJ, Gorbalenya AE. Virus-encoded proteinases and proteolytic processing in the Nidovirales. Journal of General Virology. 2000; 81(4): 853-879.
6. Bos EC, Luytjes W, Van Der Meulen H, Koerten HK, Spaan WJ. The production of recombinant infectious DI-particles of a murine coronavirus in the absence of helper virus. Virology. 1996; 218(1): 52-60.
7. Huang Q, Yu L, Petros AM, et al. Structure of the N-terminal RNA-binding domain of the SARS CoV nucleocapsid protein. Biochemistry. 2004; 43(20): 6059-6063.
8. Naresh B. A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (covid-19) pandemic. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 10(3): 233-238.
9. Luo S, Li P. Y. Guan," BJ Zheng," YQ He,” XL Liu, ZX Zhuang,” CL Cheung," SW Luo, PH Li, LJ Zhang," YJ Guan, KM Butt, KL Wong," KW Chan, W. Lim," KF Shortridge, KY Yuen, JSM Peiris, and LLM Poon'. Paper presented at: Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak: Workshop Summary2004.
10. Ahire E, Sonawane V, Surana K, Talele G. Drug Discovery, Drug-Likeness Screening, and Bioavailability: Development of Drug-Likeness Rule for Natural Products. Applied Pharmaceutical Practice and Nutraceuticals: Apple Academic Press; 2021: 191-208.
11. Patil VK, Shaikh AZ. Corona (Covid-19). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 10(4): 275-285.
12. Sharma A, Mohanan K. Obstacles faced by nurses working in Covid-19 unit: A developing country view point. Asian J Nurs Edu Res. 2020; 10(4): 459-462.
13. Zhao S, Lin Q, Ran J, et al. Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 92: 214-217.
14. Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20–28 January 2020. Eurosurveillance. 2020; 25(5).
15. Lai C-C, Shih T-P, Ko W-C, Tang H-J, Hsueh P-R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19): the epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020: 105924.
16. Ryu S, Chun BC, of Epidemiology KS. An interim review of the epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus. Epidemiology and Health. 2020; 42.
17. Sahin AR, Erdogan A, Agaoglu PM, et al. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Review of the Current Literature. EJMO. 2020;4(1):1-7.
18. Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D. Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol. 2020; 92(4): 418-423.
19. Vankadari N, Wilce JA. Emerging COVID-19 coronavirus: glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26. Emerging microbes & infections. 2020; 9(1): 601-604.
20. Cheng PK, Wong DA, Tong LK, et al. Viral shedding patterns of coronavirus in patients with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome. The Lancet. 2004; 363(9422): 1699-1700.
21. He F, Deng Y, Li W. Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know? J Med Virol. 2020.
22. Belouzard S, Chu VC, Whittaker GR. Activation of the SARS coronavirus spike protein via sequential proteolytic cleavage at two distinct sites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2009; 106(14): 5871-5876.
23. Bosch BJ, van der Zee R, de Haan CA, Rottier PJ. The coronavirus spike protein is a class I virus fusion protein: structural and functional characterization of the fusion core complex. Journal of virology. 2003; 77(16): 8801-8811.
24. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Coronaviruses: Springer; 2015:1-23.
25. Sexton NR, Smith EC, Blanc H, Vignuzzi M, Peersen OB, Denison MR. Homology-based identification of a mutation in the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that confers resistance to multiple mutagens. Journal of virology. 2016; 90(16): 7415-7428.
26. Hurst KR, Koetzner CA, Masters PS. Characterization of a critical interaction between the coronavirus nucleocapsid protein and nonstructural protein 3 of the viral replicase-transcriptase complex. Journal of vir ology. 2013; 87(16): 9159-9172.
27. Cui J, Li F, Shi Z-L. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature reviews Microbiology. 2019; 17(3): 181-192.
28. Lau SK, Lee P, Tsang AK, et al. Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 reveals evolution of different genotypes over time and recent emergence of a novel genotype due to natural recombination. Journal of virology. 2011; 85(21): 11325-11337.
29. Sethna PB, Hofmann MA, Brian DA. Minus-strand copies of replicating coronavirus mRNAs contain antileaders. Journal of virology. 1991; 65(1): 320-325.
30. Brown CG, Nixon KS, Senanayake SD, Brian DA. An RNA stem-loop within the bovine coronavirus nsp1 coding region is a cis-acting element in defective interfering RNA replication. Journal of virology. 2007; 81(14): 7716-7724.
31. Keck JG, Makino S, Soe LH, Fleming JO, Stohlman SA, Lai MM. RNA recombination of coronavirus. Coronaviruses: Springer; 1987:99-107.
32. Lai M, Baric R, Makino S, et al. Recombination between nonsegmented RNA genomes of murine coronaviruses. Journal of Virology. 1985;56(2):449-456.
33. de Haan CA, Rottier PJ. Molecular interactions in the assembly of coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2005;64:165-230.
34. Siu Y, Teoh K, Lo J, et al. The M, E, and N structural proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are required for efficient assembly, trafficking, and release of virus-like particles. Journal of virology. 2008;82(22):11318-11330.
35. Hurst KR, Kuo L, Koetzner CA, Ye R, Hsue B, Masters PS. A major determinant for membrane protein interaction localizes to the carboxy-terminal domain of the mouse coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. Journal of virology. 2005;79(21):13285-13297.
36. Perlman S, Netland J. Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Nature reviews microbiology. 2009;7(6):439-450.
37. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and its inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020.
38. Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Bioscience trends. 2020;14(1):69-71.
39. Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID‐19 epidemic. Tropical medicine & international health. 2020;25(3):278.
40. Arabi YM, Asiri AY, Assiri AM, et al. Treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome with a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-β1b (MIRACLE trial): statistical analysis plan for a recursive two-stage group sequential randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020;21(1):1-8.
41. Arabi YM, Alothman A, Balkhy HH, et al. Treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome with a combination of lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon-β1b (MIRACLE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2018;19(1):81.
42. Ahire ED, Sonawane VN, Surana KR, Jadhav KR, Sonawane DD, Shah AA. Convalescent plasma therapy: A promising approach in the treatment of Covid-19. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2020;11:4078-4086.
43. Annalakshmi A. Effectiveness of Breathing Exercise on Patients with Bronchial Asthma in Out Patient Department of PSG Hospital, Coimbatore. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2011;1(4):103-104.
44. Debnath S, Chakravorty R, Devi D. COVID 19 and its management. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021;11(2):117-121.
45. Boulos A, Rolain J-M, Raoult D. Antibiotic susceptibility of Tropheryma whipplei in MRC5 cells. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2004;48(3):747-752.
46. Fenollar F, Puéchal X, Raoult D. Whipple's disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;356(1):55-66.
47. Debnath S, Chakravorty R, Devi D. A Review on Role of Medicinal plants in Immune system. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020;10(4).
48. Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Homoud AH, Memish ZA. Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2020.
49. Khemchand R. Surana EDA, Vijayraj N. Sonawane. Role of Drug Repurposing In Current Treatment Strategies Against Covid-19; Systemic Review. Pharm Reso. 2020; 3(COVID - 19 Special Issue 2020): 24-29.
50. Dawood AA. Using Remdesivir and Dexamethasone for Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Shortens the patient's stay in the Hospital. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021; 11(2): 138-140.
51. Mitjà O, Clotet B. Use of antiviral drugs to reduce COVID-19 transmission. The Lancet Global Health. 2020; 8(5):e639-e640.
52. Gautret P, Lagier J-C, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020:105949.
53. Reddy VB, Singla RK, Bhat VG, Shenoy GG. Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of some novel benzimidazole derivatives. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2009;2(2):162-167.
54. Jaffe S. Regulators split on antimalarials for COVID-19. The Lancet. 2020;395(10231):1179.
55. Touret F, de Lamballerie X. Of chloroquine and COVID-19. Antiviral research. 2020:104762.
56. Zhang W, Zhao Y, Zhang F, et al. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China. Clinical Immunology. 2020:108393.
57. Cao X. COVID-19: immunopathology and its implications for therapy. Nature reviews immunology. 2020;20(5):269-270.
58. Shanmugaraj B, Siriwattananon K, Wangkanont K, Phoolcharoen W. Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention for Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2020;38(1):10-18.
59. Smith T, Prosser T. COVID-19 Drug Therapy–Potential Options. Clinical Drug Information, Clinical Solutions, Elsevier. Retrieved on Mar 16, 2020.2020.
60. Kumari P, Rawat K, Saha L. Pipeline Pharmacological Therapies in Clinical Trial for COVID-19 Pandemic: a Recent Update. Curr Pharmacol Rep. 2020:1-13.
61. Ali I, Alharbi OM. COVID-19: Disease, management, treatment, and social impact. Science of the Total Environment. 2020:138861.
62. Hung IF-N, Lung K-C, Tso EY-K, et al. Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. The Lancet. 2020;395(10238):1695-1704.
63. Lou Y, Liu L, Qiu Y. Clinical Outcomes and Plasma Concentrations of Baloxavir Marboxil and Favipiravir in COVID-19 Patients: an Exploratory Randomized, Controlled Trial. medRxiv. 2020.
64. Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug discoveries & therapeutics. 2020;14(1):58-60.
65. Pant S, Singh M, Ravichandiran V, Murty U, Srivastava HK. Peptide-like and small-molecule inhibitors against Covid-19. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. 2020(just-accepted):1-15.
66. Favalli EG, Biggioggero M, Maioli G, Caporali R. Baricitinib for COVID-19: a suitable treatment? The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020.
67. Blanco-Melo D, Nilsson-Payant BE, Liu W-C, et al. Imbalanced host response to SARS-CoV-2 drives development of COVID-19. Cell. 2020.
68. Zhai P, Ding Y, Wu X, Long J, Zhong Y, Li Y. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020:105955.
69. Colson P, Rolain J-M, Lagier J-C, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;105932(10.1016).
70. Cortegiani A, Ingoglia G, Ippolito M, Giarratano A, Einav S. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Journal of critical care. 2020.
71. Cao Y. Suggestion Using Alcohol Vaporization or Nebulization Inhalation Therapy for Pneumonitis Caused by Coronavirus. Available at SSRN 3545744. 2020.
72. Jeyanthi T, Subramanian P, Kumaravel P. A comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera root extract with commercial antibiotics. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;3(2):98-102.
73. Priya R, Sujatha V. AYUSH for COVID-19: Science or Superstition? Indian J Public Health. 2020;64(6):105.
74. Sachin S. Gunjal and Swati G. Talele Eknath D. Ahire KRS, Vijayraj N. Sonawane, Khushali R. Pagar. Influence of Allopathy, Homeopathy, Ayurveda and Unani Systems of Medicine in the Management of COVID-19. In: Haghi AK, ed. COVID-19 Pandemic: Questions, Answers and Hypotheses. Vol 1. USA: NOVA Publications, USA; 2020/10/16:196.
75. Parikh N, Parikh D. Role of homoeopathy in COVID-19 Management-A clinical experience. World J Pharm Res. 2020;9(5):2459.
76. Amanat F, Krammer F. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: status report. Immunity. 2020.
77. Grenfell R, Drew T. Here's Why It's Taking So Long to Develop a Vaccine for the New Coronavirus. Science Alert Archived from the original on. 2020;28.
78. Yamey G, Schäferhoff M, Hatchett R, Pate M, Zhao F, McDade KK. Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines. The Lancet. 2020;395(10234):1405-1406.
79. Chen W-H, Strych U, Hotez PJ, Bottazzi ME. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pipeline: an overview. Current tropical medicine reports. 2020:1-4.
80. Mullard A. COVID-19 vaccine development pipeline gears up. The Lancet. 2020;395(10239):1751-1752.
81. Shin MD, Shukla S, Chung YH, et al. COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward. Nature Nanotechnology. 2020:1-10.
82. Organization WH. DRAFT landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines. World. 2020.
83. Arora NK, Das MK. COVID-19 vaccine development and the way forward. Indian J Public Health. 2020;64(6):108.